Jetset Documentation

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Jetset Documentation

Post by metalratsez »

DOS Game = JETSET (747)

The documentaion which follows was originally published in the November, 1982
issue (v7,n11) pp. 272 of BYTE Magazine. It is reproduced here (with slight
modification to account for figures not reproducible here) so that those of
you who no longer can locate this issue may enjoy this excellent program...
Russ McCallister, P.O.Box 79, River Forest, Illinois 60305 - September 1983

747 or JETSET as it was named by the author offers the adventure of
piloting a jet aircraft minus the jet lag and the risk. The program name
JETSET is an acronym for the Jet Simuator Electronic Trainer. You will
maneuver an aircraft through the three stages of flight--takeoff, cruising,
and landing--in less than ideal conditions.

The program originally written for the TRS-80 Model II, uses the
keyboard and screen to make a personal computer version of a commercial flight
simulator. To make JETSET a realistic simulation, everything the pilot does
in this program must be coordinated with an instrument panel displayed on the
computer screen. In addition, the pilot must follow the actual procedures
required when flying in near-zero visibility. A plane flown in such inclement
weather must proceed according to Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) established by
government, and the pilot must be specially trained and certified to fly
ON INSTRUMENTS. This information is incorporated into the JETSET program.

===== START ======

Computer Simulated Flight
-------- --------- ------
The JETSET (747) Program lets the pilot activate the control surfaces of
the jet aircraft, adjust engine thrust, and tune navigational radio equipment
by pressing a set of keys. (See Table 1.) The program responds to the keypress
commands by adjusting aircraft attitude to match the control surfaces and
updating the instrument panel display every four seconds as the trajectory of
the jetliner is tracked through space by the computer.

The jet instrument panel gives the pilot all the flight information he needs to
take off, navigate, and land an aircraft using standard flight procedures and
the radio facilities established for modern-day flying. The panel functions
reveal what the aircraft is doing and where it is located, so that after a
short period of training the pilot knows instinctively how to scan and
interpret the panel data.

Position tracking, a vital ingredient in the simulation, is performed in
real time to keep the flight situation up to date. Although the pilot
completely controls the motion of the jet, wind forces that vary with altitude
can influence the flight. The program uses an analytical combination of jet
and wind motion to solve the "wind triangle" that is formed whenever an
aircraft is aloft and moving through layers of air. The wind-triangle solution
yields the "true" motion of the jet relative to the earth's surface.

When the simulation begins, the jetliner is poised for takeoff on the
runway at Philadelphia Internation Airport. The geographic coordinates of
Philadelphia mark the starting point of flight. The computer fixes this
initial position in memory and cranks out a new longitude and latitude 15 times
a minute. The pilot controls the path of the jet during the takeoff roll down
the runway. If everything is done correctly in the cockpit, this path will
lead to a takeoff with room to spare.

Once airborne, the jet is tracked against a grid of meridians and parallels,
an involved computation that requires the program to used spherical trigon-
metry because of the earth's curved surfgace. Because the geographic
coordinates of airports and radio beacons are stored in the computer's memory,
a comparison of positions yields the information needed to update the
insrument panel the pilot uses to navigate.

An instrument landing, the trickiest part of any actual flight, is also the
most complex operation for the computer to simulate. This type of landing
requires a programmed geometry to simulate the Instrument Landing System (ILS)
pattern formed by special radio beams. These beams, which converge at the
landing end of a runway, deflect an indicator on the instrument panel of the
landing jet and give the pilot an exact path to follow during the final
approach to the airport.

Because JETSET knows precisely where the pilot is telling the plane to go,
the program will continue to run until the jet lands safely and rolls to a halt
or until the flight ends in disaster. When the simulation has ended, for
whatever reason, JETSET provides a complete report of the pilot's performance.
The report includes the landing location of the plane-whether on or off the
runway-to the nearest foot, and in case of pilot error a description of the
error and the likey damage to the aircraft.

Flying Lesson #1, Taking Off

When you load JETSET into memory and type RUN, the screen will flash a
message authorizing a takeoff from Philadelphia International on runway 9R.
The screen will then display the upper section of the jet instrument panel and
a perspective view of the runway as it would appear from the cockpit.
At this point the jet is parked in the takeoff position with its engines
idling, ready to go when its brakes are released.

To prepare for takeoff, lower the flaps (L key) and check the panel FLAP
indicator. A down position shows that the wing flaps are now extended.
The flaps provide the vital extra lift needed during landing and takeoff, when
the jet airspeed is marginal. Next, release the wheel brakes (W key).
The jet will begin to move slowly because the engines are idling at only a
fraction of their rated power or thrust. To apply full takeoff power, press
the "F" key and watch the THRUST lever indicator move to its maximum forward
position. The program will now apply acceleration to gradually bring the
jet up to its rated takeoff speed, 150 knots (173 mph).

As momentum builds, the AIRSPEED indicator begins to register. The jet
begins its takeoff roll down the 10,500 foot runway. Soon afterward, the
COMPASS indicator begins to deflect from its 075 degree reading as the jet is
hammered by gusts of wind sweeping across the runway. This is a busy time in
the cockpit because you must carefully steer the jet along the 200-foot-wide
runway strip as you come up to take-off speed. A sliding arrow at the base of
the runway graphic shows how far the jet is wandering from the runway
centerline. Use the rudder keys (< and >) to steer the jet via its nosewheel
whenever this arrow veers away from the center position. The arrow will shift
left or right whenever the compass reading deviates from the 075 degree
direction of the runway. Careful steering, then is an exercise in coordinating
both keys with the compass reading and the runway graphic (each press of a
rudder key alters the direction of travel by one degree).

Assuming that the jet doesn't veer off the runway (which would end the flight),
you must be ready to execute the lift-off maneuver when the airspeed indicator
reaches 150 knots, at which point you press the "D" key once, and once only,
to tilt the nose up 10 degrees. The jet will lift off just before the end of
the runway moves to the bottom of the screen, and the horizon line will vanish.

Immediately following the lift-off, you must execute a three-step sequence to
gain altitude promptly:

1. raise the landng gear (W key) to reduce "drag" (air friction)
2. retract the wing flaps (L key)
3. reduce the thrust (S key) to attenuate engine noise-in accordance with
federal antinoise regulations-as the jet passes over metropolitan

You must perform this sequence in the above order because the three keys are
software-interlocked. In addition, you must complete the three steps before
the ALTITUDE indicator reads 1200 feet. If you do everything correctly, the
screen will erase to indicate a successful takeoff and a display of the
complete instrument panel will appear.

Takeoff Mishaps

JETSET doesn't introduce random flight emergencies, but the simulation will
abort with a grim message if you mishandle the jet. Using the built-in
program specifications of a Boeing 747, the equations of motion dictate that
it takes 63 seconds to reach takeoff velocity (150 knots) after full engine
thrust is applied. During this interval, the accelerating jet uses up 80 per
cent of the two mile runway.

This equation of motion establishes the safe takeoff envelope for the
simulation. You must use the "D" key promptly when the airspeed reaches 150
knots. If you hesitate for another ten seconds, it will be too late-the jet
will simply charge down the runway at 172 knots, plunge into the marchlands
beyond, get the picture.

The anxious pilot who pulls the nose up too sharply at lift-off time (by
pressing the "D" key more than once) also comes to grief. The abort message
will point out that the tailend of the fuselage has struck the runway; the
aft end of a 747 will clear the ground by only a few feet during normal
takeoff. Most important, as pilot you must always remember to lower the
wing flaps before you attempt to take off in a 400-ton jet, even in a

Flying Lesson # 2 Maneuvering

Following the takeoff, the jet slowly gains altitude as it passes over
central New Jersey and heads toward the Atlantic coast. None of this
geography is visible, of course, because of the blanket of clouds below.
At this point, you must navigate the jetliner entirely on instruments until
it's just a few hundred feet from the point of landing at the destination
airport, wherever that may be.

This lesson will give you a "feel" for the controls and show you how they
relate to the instrument panel functions. (See table 2 for controls list.)
The PITCH indicator shows that the nose is tilted upward (positive pitch)
at an angle of 10 degrees. With the current position of the THRUST lever,
the jet is gaining altitude at the rate of 6704 feet per minute (VERTICAL
SPEED). Press the "U" key twice to level the nose to a zero-degree pitch.
The AIRSPEED will now increase. VERTICAL SPEED will become zero, and the
ALTITUDE will remain constant.

The "U" and "D" keys, which correspond to motion of the pilot's control
stick, are used to climb or descend to a new altitude. Each press of the
"U" key pushes the nose down another 5 degrees, causing a rapid loss of
altitude as both air speed and vertical speed build up. Regardless of the
maneuver--climbing or diving--you should always use the "C" key to quickly
level off the jet when the ALTITUDE readout reaches the desired value.

You can steer the jet to a new COMPASS course by pressing the keys that
control rudder angle. Press the "<" key once to begin a slow turn to the
left and watch both the COMMPASS and the rudder-angle indicator (RUD). Each
additional push of the rudder key will make the angle more acute, causing
the COMPASS to swing faster as the rate of turn increases. Always use the
rudder-cancel key (/) to stop further turning as soon as the COMPASS
indicates the desired course.

You can adjust AIRSPEED by moving the thrust level forward or backward (F
and S keys) one step at a time. Each tap of the key shifts the position of
the arrow displayed on the THRUST indicator and alters the AIRSPEED reading.
The 747 normally cruises at 600 knots, and for a given thrust setting the
AIRSPEED indicator will drop back during a climb and increase during descent.

Because the instrument response time is 4 seconds, you must delay consecutive
applications of the stick or rudder keys until the panel instrument readings
catch up. The jet will automatically level off when it reaches an altitude
of 45,000 feet; a dive to ground level while cruising however, will abort the
flight with a simulated crash.

In a plane, the VLF OMEGA indicator is part of an electronic subsystem that
receives and correlates specially phased, very low-frequency radio waves.
These waves, which propagate over great distances, are processed in the
airborne receiver to give the pilot a continuous display of the changing
position of the aircraft. The JETSET simulator tracks aircraft motion as
the sum of two vectors: aircraft movement relative to the wind (compass
heading and airspeed) and wind movement relative to the earth's surface.
As a result of this tracking, the longitude and latitude displayed by the
OMEGA readout can fix the exact geographic position of the jet as it is
maneuvered through computer-simulated winds. This process results in an
effective real-time simulation of the actual OMEGA system.

Although the longitude and latitude displayed on the OMEGA indicator may
be used along with any chart or road map to check the progress of the
simulated flight, the actual OMEGA system is normally used for flying
between continents. For short-range and cross-country flights, most air-
craft-and the JETSET simulator-rely on a more convenient system popularly
known as VOR (VHF Omni-directional Ranges).

Flying Lesson #3 Navigating

Most aircraft navigate from point to point using VOR radio facilities. A
ground station transmits radio beams that radiate horizontally outward in
all directions like the spokes of a wheel. Each spoke or radial (there
are 360) is fixed in direction and can be used to provide an accurate and
unvarying path to its source, the VOR station transmitter.

In practice, the pilot first tunes the VOR receiver to a ground station
located at or near the destination. Each station is assigned a unique
frequency. Next the pilot adjust the receiver's radial selector dial to
match the particular radial intended for use as a path (this dial is cali-
brated in one-degree steps, from 000 to 359 degrees). The pilot then flies
while watching the needle of a sensitive meter connected to the VOR receiver.
When the needle moves to its center position, the aircraft has intercepted
the selected radial. By altering the course to keep the VOR needle centered,
the pilot will be able to guide the plane directly along the radial in a
straight line toward the VOR transmitter.

To navigate from Philadelphia to Buffalo, New York first tune the VOR
receiver to 116.4 MHz (the frequency assigned to the Buffalo VOR station)
and select the desired radial, 115 degrees in this example. Rotate the
radial dial until it points to 295 degrees, the reciprocal value of 115
(115 + 180 = 295). (The reciprocal value is always used when setting the
selector dial to match the chosen radial. This process gives the VOR
receiver proper internal orientation.)

Once tuning is completed, you fly in an approximate northerly direction and
watch the movement of you VOR panel indicator. Initially the needle will
be "pegged" to the right side of its travel, but it will slowly begin to
move toward the center as the plane nears the 115-degree radial. Once the
needle is at center, alter your course to 295 degrees by compass and swing
the nose of your jet toward Buffalo. Now you must make minor steering
corrections, using the rudder to keep the VOR needle centered.

This needle, rather than the compass reading, provides the guidance for the
remainder of the trip. Upper air winds will generally deflect the heading
(compass course) of the jet from its actual track over the earth's surface,
but if the plane is flown with the needle centered, the path of travel will
remain exactly on the 115-degree radial. The compass reading may differ by
a dozen or more degrees when you are flying at upper altitudes in the
presence of high-velocity jet streams.

The process of adjusting the steering to keep the VOR needle on center is
called "chasing the needle." If the needle (which represents the radial),
begins moving to the left, you must apply some left rudder until the needle
returns to center. For needle deflection to the right, steer to the right.
After a minute or two you should be able to establish a compass heading that
keeps the VOR needle centered until the jet arrives in Buffalo.

The VOR system carried aboard a jetliner includes a very useful and
important device know as the DME (Distance-Measuring Equipment). Once the
VOR receiver is tuned to a station, the DME indicator continuously displays
the distance in nautical miles (NM) to the station. In a flight to Buffalo,
for example, the DME would read about 180 NM when the northward-flying jet
first intercepts the 115-degree radial. From then on, as the pilot steered
toward Buffalo the DME value would progressively decrease in step with the
aircraft's position until the reading reached zero. A zero reading would
indicate that the jet had flown over the VOR station. The DME readout
would then slowly begin to increase as the pilot passed by Buffalo.

The simulator VOR receiver is tuned and adjusted from the keyboard. To
tune to a station, first press the V key. then type in the station
frequency. The typed characters will echo on the screen; to correct them,
use the Backspace key. Finally, press Enter to terminate the input. To
tune in the Buffalo station, type the 6-key sequence "V116.4" followed by
the Enter key.

A similar procedure sets the VOR receiver to any selected radial except
that you type "R" first rather than "V". To adjust the receiver for the
flight to Buffalo, type "R295" followed by the Enter key.

The RANGE window of the VOR receiver displays OUT whenever the receiver is
not tuned to any station or whenever it is tuned to an incorrect frequency.
An OUT also appears if the receiver is tuned to a VOR station whose distance
exceeds 300 NM, the maximum range of the VOR signals.

Flying Lesson #4 Practicing VOR

Several practice flights to Buffalo on the JETSET simulator will acquaint
you with the simple principle of VOR navigation. Although it isn't nec-
essary, a chart or group of road maps that encompass the Buffalo-Phila-
delphia area would help you visualize the progress of the jet.

Begin by taking off from Philadelphia, climbing to about 10,000 feet, and
leveling off. Then apply the left rudder until the compass reads 000, give
or take a few degrees. While you're on this northerly course, adjust the
thrust (F and S keys) for an airspeed of 600 knots.

Tune to the Buffalo VOR station by typing "V116.4" and the Enter key. Set
the receiver for the reciprocal of the 115-degree radial by typing "R295"
followed by Enter. This completes the tuning procedure. The VOR needle,
which is located directly above the RADIAL window on the display, will now
remain pegged to the rightmost position for about seven minutes as the jet
flies north. Once the VOR needle begins moving toward the center of the
graphic slot, prepare to alter course. When the needle reaches center,
apply the left rudder (< key) and bring the jet on a compass course of 295
degrees. Remain on this course for about a minute and watch the motion of
the VOR needle. Now you can begin chasing the needle by applying the
rudder corrections needed to center the needle and keep it there. You may
need to make an occasional steering adjustment if the needle begins to
wander, but as long as it remains within one dot of center (each dot
represents one degree), your course will be reasonably accurate.

When the Buffalo radial is first intercepted, the DME indicator should
read approximately 180 NM, and it should take about 18 minutes for the
600 knot jet to reach its destination. The exact flying time, of course,
will depend on the strength and direction of the prevailing winds, but the
DME readout will always show the exact remaining distance. If you use a
map to keep tabs on the practice flight, remember that DME distances are
nautical (not statute) miles. A DME reading of 100 NM corresponds to 115.2
statute miles.

As the jet moves along the radial the RANGE window of the VOR panel will
display TO, indicating orientation toward the VOR station. As soon as the
DME reaches zero, note the reading of the OMEGA display. Because the jet
is passing directly over the ground station, the display should read 42
degrees 55 minutes North, 78 degrees 38 minutes West, equal to the geo-
graphic coordinates of the VOR station. This reading confirms that the
navigation was accurately performed by the VOR system. If you have main-
tained the course, a FROM will appear in the RANGE window as the jet
proceeds in a westerly direction away from Buffalo, New York.

Flying Along Airways

Although I used the 115 degree radial for the practice flight to Buffalo, I
could just as will have chosen other radials for guidance. For example, a
map shows that the 140 degree radial passes directly through Philadelphia
and would therefore reduce the flying time if it had been used as a path.
I selected 115 degrees instead because it is designated as a jet route by
the FAA (Federal Aviation Administraction). The FAA has established a net-
work of special radials that high-altitude jets must use when flying on
instruments. An aviation chart reveals that radial 115 from Buffalo corres-
ponds to jet route J-95 when the radial direction is adjusted for the
earth's magnetism (the JETSET program works with true, not magnetic

In order to comply with regulations, an actual high-altitude flight from
Philadelphia to Buffalo might require the pilot to proceed as follows:

fly toward Philipsburg, Pennsylvania along jet route J-60
alter course at Philipsburg to pick up jet route J-61 which
leads directly to Buffalo

During the first leg of the trip, the pilot would tune the VOR receiver to
115.5 MMz, the frequency of the Philipsburg ground station, and fly along
the J-60 radial (278 degrees). Just before the pilot reached Philipsburg
(as shown by DME indicator), he would retune the receiver for Buffalo (116.4
MHz) and adjust it to the radial that corresponded to jet route J-61 (346
degrees). The pilot would then alter his course, chasing the needle to
follow radial 345 until he arrived at Buffalo.

Numerous VOR stations scattered throughout the country enable a pilot to
fly extended distances simply by hopping from one station to the next,
retuning the receiver to locate the designated jet routes. JETSET, however
needs only a handful of VOR stations to establish a network for instrument
flight simulation. Table 3 shows the frequencies and locations of the VOR
stations for practice flights included in the program. You may use any of
these VOR stations for practice flights to the given cities or as stepping
stones for navigating from city to city. (Remember that a tuned-in VOR
station must be within 300 miles to activate the airborne VOR receiver).

The VOR receiver in the JETSET simulator is as versatile as its real-life
counterpart. When a pilot is lost or disoriented the receiver can be tuned
to a VOR station and the radial-selector dial rotated until the needle of
the VOR meter centers. The reading shown on the radial dial then represents
the direction from the VOR station. Combining this with the distance read
on the DME indicator results in an exact position "fix".

In the JETSET simulator a press of a "A" key results in an exact position
fix. The program automatically rotates the invisible radial-selector dial
for the pilot and quickly displays the direction from the tuned-in station
in the RADIAL window.

Instrument Landing

Using the VOR receiver as a guide a pilot can navigate accurately from one
city to another without any view of the earth below. VOR radials are
suitable for point-to-point navigation, but when a pilot arrives at his
destination he needs another system of guidance to get to the airport
runway itself. In this case the pilot must revert to a radio aid, the
Instrument Landing System (ILS), a facility designed to make blind landings
possible. A trained pilot flying an aircraft equipped with an ILS receiver
can locate an airport and safely land on a runway that may not be visible
until a minute or so before the actual touchdown.

An ILS installation consists of a group of radio transmitters arranged in
the vicinity of the airport where ILS landings are to take place. These
transmitters radiate highly directional radio beams that converge at the
foot of the runway, forming a cone-shaped pattern like the rays of a
searchlight. The pilot first maneuvers the plane into this invisible cone,
then uses the ILS receiver to follow the radio waves down until the air-
craft is just a few hundred feet above the ground. At this low altitude
the runway should be visible, so the actual landing can be completed in
the usual way.

The airborne instruments used to locate and follow the cone of radio waves
are a marker lamp, an ILS indicator, and a radar altimeter. On the JETSET
simulator panel these three components are identified as the MARKER, ILS,
and RADAR ALT respectively. The panel MARKER lamp flashes on when the
aircraft flies over a point called the "outer marker" telling the pilot
that the plane has just entered the ILS cone. The crosshairs (horizontal
and vertical needles) of the panel ILS meter will now begin to deflect,
and the pilot must maneuver the plane to keep the needles centered in order
to follow the path of the ILS radio cone. As the aircraft descends along
this narrow path, the radio altimeter (RADAR ALT) gives a continuous
display of the exact elevation from the ground (in feet).The radio alti-
meter is much more sensitive than the conventional altimeter, so it is
always used for precision landings.

During the time the aircraft has entered the ILS cone and is heading
toward the runway, when the pilot is making the final approach, the plane
flies in a direction known as the "localizer" direction of the ILS radio
beams. The angle that the radio cone makes with the ground is called the
"glidescope" angle, and the descending plane is said to be flying within
the ILS "glidepath". The two moving needles of the ILS indicator correspond
to the localizer and glideslope axes during the final approach. The pilot
chases the vertical needle (which moves left and right) to remain aligned
with the localizer direction. The horizontal needle (which deflects up
and down) must be chased using the elevator controls to keep the plane
within the glidepath.

Once the descending aircraft reaches the ILS "middle marker", the panel
MARKER lamp will flash again, alerting the pilot that the plane is just a
fraction of a mile from the runway. This critical location is called the
"decision height" of the final approach because the pilot must now decide
whether he can safely complete the landing. If the runway appears in view
directly ahead, the pilot can make a visual landing. If, however, the
plane is not properly lined up with the runway (because the ILS needles
were not kept centered), the pilot must abort the landing attempt at once
by climbing out of the glidepath. This situation is known as a "missed
approach". When a pilot misses the approach, he flies a safe distance
away from airport traffic and then returns to the OM point for another try.

Every ILS equipped airport uses an arrangement which places the VOR station
away from the airport in such a way that the plane will cross the ILS cone
near the outer marker. The exact ILS arrangement (localizer direction and
glidescope angle) for any given airport is published in a manual of approach
diagrams (one for each airport), which the pilot studies well in advance of
his instrument landing.

Obviously, an instrument landing is a tricky procedure that airline pilots
must practice in large-scale simulators to perfect. The routines that sim-
ulate landing are an important part of the JETSET program; they closely
follow the sequences that develop when a plane flies into the ILS pattern.
You may have to make several attempts at a simulated landing before you
can consider yourself qualified to handle a jetliner under bad weather

Flying Lesson #5 - Practicing ILS

Preparing for an instrument landing, even aboard the JETSET simulator,
begins when the plane is still many miles away from the airport. Because
all ILS landing procedures follow a standard pattern, the John F. Kennedy
(JFK) International Airport, conveniently located with respect to Phila-
delphia, can serve as a practice landing site. A simulated flight from
Philadelphia to JFK lasts about 20 minutes from takeoff until the jet rolls
to a stop on the runway.

Every airline flight must be conducted in accordance with a flight plan, a
document that specifies the routes the pilot will fly until he arrives at
the destination. An actual flight takes place at standard altitude levels
and under close supervision of air traffic controllers, but the flight plan
prepared for the practice run to JFK International tells the JETSET pilot
exactly how to proceed. See Table 4.

Using the Philadelphia-JFK flight plan as a guide, execute the takeoff
procedure and climb to 5000 feet while maintaining a compass course of 075
degrees. During the climb, tune your VOR to the JFK ground station (115.9
MHz) and input the radial value of 058 degrees.

Level off at an altitude of approximately 6000 feet. Use the "<" key for
the left rudder to alter the compass course to approximately 000 degrees.
HOld this course until the VOR needle nears its center position. Now steer
to 058 degrees and begin chasing the VOR needle.

The jet will head directly for JFK as long as you keep the VOR needle
centered-the 058 degree radial is used because it's the "initial approach"
radial defined for JFK airport. It will lead to an intercept with the
runway outer marker (OM), a prerequisite for the instrument landing.

As soon as the DME indicator reads 38, you must prepare for landing. To
begin a descent, adjust, adjust the elevators for a pitch of -10 degrees
(press the key twice) and level off at an altitude of about 1900 feet.

Start the "initial approach trim" procedure for the jetliner when the DME
distance is 20 NM. First reduce your airspeed to 300 knots (S key), lower
the landing gear (W key), and lower the wing flaps (L key). The airspeed
will automatically drop back to 120 knots as soon as the flaps are lowered,
as required for a proper landing. Complete the trim procedure by adjusting
altitude until the ALTITUDE indicator reads between 1700 and 1900 feet.

You must execute this procedure quickly so that the aircraft is in proper
"profile" or flight configuration as it approaches the OM along the initial
approach radial. You will reach the OM when the DME reads exactly 12 NM, so
the jet should be in its trim profile and steered to keep the VOR needle
centered (to within two graphic dots) as the OM point nears.

If you've done these steps carefully, the panel MARKER lamp will flash when
when the DME indicator reads 12 NM. This is a signal that the aircraft has
just intercepted the ILS radio cone and must be promptly steered to align with
the localizer direction (028 degrees) at JFK airport.

Press the left rudder (< key) quickly when the MARKER lamp flashes. It's
imperative that you swing the jet to a compass course of 028 degrees before
it flies out of the narrow area of the radio cone (this would occur about
15 seconds after the MARKER lamp turns on). A compass reading of 028
degrees (give or take one degree) before the MARKER lamp goes off will
ensure that you completed the turn in time for the jetliner to enter the
ILS radio cone. Both the ILS indicator and the RADAR ALT meter should be
activated. If not, the turn took too long to complete and you need more
practice in making a fast turn. For another attempt, you can stop the
simulation program and begin again or raise the flaps and wheels and circle
back to pick up the initial approach radial for another attempt.

The rapid updating of the ILS indicator means the jet is now beginning its
crucial final approach. You have very little margin for error. The program
will automatically change the sensitivity of the elevator and rudder keys;
each press of the elevator key varies the pitch by one degree and the course
changes by one degree each time a rudder key is pressed. Quickly press the
"D" key three times to pitch the nose down 3 degrees and turn your attention
to the ILS display.

You must use the rudder keys to chase the vertical needle of the ILS
indicator as the jet loses altitude (as shown by the RADAR ALT reading).
If ;the ILS horizontal needle moves from center, chase by using the
elevator keys. Crosswinds blowing across the airport will tend to deflect
the jet (and the vertical ILS needle), so you must make every effort to
keep the two ILS needles where they belong-exactly on center.

The RADAR ALT indicator, a meter that activates when the final approach
begins, shows the elevation of the descending jet (feet above ground
level). At an elevation of about 600 feet, JETSET will display the
approaching runway on the lower-right portion of the screen to simulate
that the ground is now visible. The arrow appearing at the foot of the
graphic screen shows the exact alignment of the jet in relation to the
approach end of the airport runway. You mut now use this visual reference
instead of the ILS indicator to quickly correct any course errors. For
example, if the arrow extends too far to the left, beyond the runway base,
apply some right rudder to realign the jet's path.

After a few more seconds the MARKER lamp shold flash again to announce
that the plane has just reached the middle marker point along the approach
path, the decision-height location. Now a quick decision is vital. If
the arrow of the runway graphic extends too far left or right, beyond the
runway base, the jet is not properly lined up for a safe landing and you
must press the "M" key immediately to signal a missed approach to the
computer. JETSET will comply by announcing that the pilot's decision was
correct for the landing situation.

If however, the runway arrow shows that the jetliner is safely aligned for
a landing, you must bring it down as follows:

1. At an elevation of 100 feet (RADAR ALT reading), press the "S" key
once. This command will "chop the throttle" (abruptly reduce the
engine thrust to idle).

2. At 50 feet, press the "C" key once to "flare up" the nose of the
jet. This maneuver automatically tilts the aircraft upward slightly
to a positive pitch, causing a controlled stall. The jet will
now sink gently down to ground level as it loses aerodynamic lift.

3. At 0 feet the jet has landed and is rolling along the runway.
Quickly press the "Q" key to apply reverse thrust to the engines.
Reverse thrust decelerates the ircraft gradually until the AIRSPEED
readout reaches zero.

Your JETSET flight concludes with a display of the landing information
that tells you how well you handled the jet. This information specifies
where ground contact occurred and where the jet finally rolled to a halt.
If you made a mistake at the middle marker, the landing report will print
out the consequences.

This is only a small part of the capabilities of the JETSET simulator.
There are about 15 to 20 additional airports built in. It is conceivable
that you could fly all over the United States. Remember though, this
simulator flies in real-time. If it takes 6 hours to fly from New York
to San Fransico in a real aircraft, it will take the same 6 hours flying
the simulator.

Table 1. Listed below are the keyboard keys, functions, and definitions:

--- -------- ----------

NOTES: 1. The CAPS LOCK key must be engaged throughout the simulation.
2. An asterisk (*) identifies keys that may be typed additional
times to increase their control function.

Table 2. Instrument Panel Legend
-------- ---------- ----- ------

Instrument Units Function
---------- ----- --------
FUEL pounds,% fuel aboard (in puounds and percentage full)
VHF MHz communications channel
THRUST position of engine thrust levers
PITCH attitude of aircraft
DEG degrees angle of pitch, measured from horizontal
COMPASS degrees compass heading of aircraft (direction of nose)
AIRSPEED knots aircraft velocity through the air
VERT SPEED feet/minute rate of climb or descent
ALTITUDE feet altitude above the ground
CLOCK hr.min.sec time of day (local)
VLF OMEGA degrees,min aircraft position (latitude and longitude)
RUD rudder angle
FLAPS flaps position
WHEELS landing gear position
BRAKE position of wheel brakes
VOR MHz frequency to which VOR receiver is tuned
RANGE status of VOR receiver
RADIAL degrees value of selected radial (needle moves along
window directly above radial)
DME nautical miles distance to VOR ground station
RADAR ALT feet aircraft elevation during final approach
MARKER turns on when flying directly over the ILS outer
and middle marker beacons
ILS pair of needles that deflect according to aircraft
position in ILS radio cone
STALL flashes as aircraft is stalled during final approach

Table 3. Locations and frequencies of simulated VOR ground stations

-------- --------- -------- ---------
Philipsburg, PA ll5.5 MHz 40 deg 55 min N 77 deg 59 min W
JFK, NY 115.9 40 38 73 46
Boston, MA 112.7 42 22 70 59
Buffalo, NY 116.4 42 56 78 39
Flint, MI 116.9 42 58 83 44
Green Bay, WI 117.0 44 33 88 12
Joliet, IL 112.3 41 33 88 19
Cleveland, OH 113.6 41 22 82 10

------- ---------

A. Lower flaps (L key).
B. Release breaks (B key).
C. Apply full throttle (F key).
D. Steer along the 075-degree runway using the left/right rudder keys
(< and >). Coordinate steering with the COMPASS reading and the position
of the arrow located at the base of the runway graphic.
E. As soon as the AIRSPEED indicates 150 knots, press the U key once to
gently lift the jet off the runway.
F. After the horizon line drops below the screen, press the W key to
raise the landing gear.
G. Retract the flaps (L key).
H. Throttle back the engines (S key).
I. Sit back and relax for a minute or so as the jet gains altitude.

-------- ------ -- -------

A. Execute the takeoff form Philadelphia as described above.
B. Level off at 10,000 feet.
C. Steer approximately north.
D. Adjust airspeed to 600 knots.
E. Tune to the frequency of the Buffalo VOR station (115.5 MHz).
F. Input the value of 278-degrees radial into the receiver.
G. When the VOR needle moves to center, alter course to 295-degrees
H. Now steer to keep the VOR needle centered. This indicator, not the
compass, will provide exact guidance for the remainder of the flight.
I. Use the DME indicator to keep track of the distance remaining, in nautical
miles, to Buffalo. To estimate the remaining flying time (in minutes),
simply divide the DME reading by 10.
J. When the DME readout reaches zero, the jet has arrived.

---------- -------

A. Execute the takeoff procedures.
B. Continue to climb to an altitude of 3000 feet on a course of 075
C. At 3000 feet, alter course to 000 degrees and continue climbing.
Adjust thrust for airspeed of 580 knots. Tune VOR to Philipsburg
station (115.5 MHz), and set radial to 278 degrees.
D. Steer along 278-degree radial when intercepted. Level off at 40,000
feet and proceed to Philipsburg at 600 knots.
E. At DME=20 NM, retune VOR to Buffalo (116.4 MHz) and set radial to 346
F. Upon intercepting the 346-degree radial, alter course to follow the
radial to Buffalo.
G At DME=73 NM, begin decent to 1900 feet (descend at approximately
11,000 FPM).
H. Level off at 1900 feet. Remain aligned with the radial.

I. Begin initial approach trim when DME=20 NM as follows:

1. Reduce airspeed to 300 knots (S key).
2. Drop landing gear (W key).
3. Lower the flaps (L key).
4. Adjust altitude to between 1700 and 1900 feet (elevator keys).
5. Keep the VOR needle centered (rudder keys) to stay on the initial
approach radial.

J. Be alert for the flash of the MARKER lamp (which occurs when the
DME=12). At this signal the jet must be maneuvered for the final

1. Quickly swing the nose until the compass shows 042 degrees.
2. Use rudder and elevator keys to keep the ILS indicator needles
centered as the jet descends along the glidepath.
3. As soon as the runway graphic appears on the screen, use the
graphic arrow as a guide to apply rudder corrections.

K. When the MARKER lamp flashes again to announce arrival at the decision-
height point, check the runway alignment using the graphic displayed on
the screen. If necessary, press the M (Missed Approach) key to abort
the landing attempt. Otherwise, if the plane is lined up safely, take
all cues from the RADAR ALT from here on in:

1. At 100 feet, idle the engines (S key).
2. At 50 feet, flare up the nose (\ key).
3. At 0 feet, the jet is on the runway. Slow it down by applying
reverse thrust to the engines (Q key).

------ ---- ------------- -- -- -------- --

1. After takeoff, continue climbing to 3000 feet on course 075 degrees.
2. At 3000 feet alter course to 000 degrees and continue climbing. Adjust
thrust for airspeed 580 knots, tune VOR to Philipsburg station (115.5 MHz),
and set radial to 278 degrees.
3. Steer along 278 degree radial. When intercepted, level off at 40,000 feet
and proceed to Philipsburg at 600 knots.
4. At DME = 20 NM, retune VOR to Buffalo (116.4 MHz) and set radial to 346
5. Upon intercepting 346-degree radial, alter course to follow radial to
6. At DME = 73 NM, begin descent to 1900 feet (descend at approximately
11,000 feet per minute).
7. Level off at 1900 feet. Remain aligned with radial.
8. Begin initial approach trim when DME = 20 NM.
9. Execute ILS final approach procedures when MARKER lamp flashes. Localizer
direction is 042 degrees.

------ ---- ------------- -- -- --- -------------- --

1. After takeoff, continue climbing to 6000 feet on course 075 degrees.
While climbing, tune VOR to JFK station (115.9 MHz) and set radial
to 058 degrees.
2. Level off at 6000 feet. Steer left to intercept radial, align with it,
and proceed toward Long Island, NY at 400 knots.
3. At DME = 38 NM, begin descent to 1900 feet (descend at approximately
7410 feet per minute).
4. Level off at 1900 feet. Remain aligned with radial.
5. Begin initial approach trim when DME = 20 NM.
6. Execute ILS final approach procedures when MARKER lamp flashes. Localizer
direction is 028 degrees.

===== END ======

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